Arctic Council

The Arctic Council

Level: Intermediate

The Arctic Council is an intergovernmental forum dedicated to addressing various issues related to the Arctic region. Established in 1996, it consists of eight member states: Canada, The Kingdom of Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, The Kingdom of Norway, The Russian Federation, The Kingdom of Sweden, and the United States of America. The Council serves as a platform for these countries to collaborate on matters such as environmental protection, sustainable development, indigenous rights, and scientific research in the Arctic. Additionally, six indigenous organizations have permanent participant status in the Council, allowing them to contribute to discussions and decisions. The Arctic Council’s non-binding nature promotes cooperative efforts and information sharing among its members, playing a vital role in the sustainable management of the unique challenges and opportunities posed by the rapidly changing Arctic environment.

The uniqueness of the Arctic Council lies in its distinctive composition and collaborative approach, which bring together both states and indigenous groups to address the complex challenges of the Arctic region. This inclusive framework acknowledges the interconnectedness of environmental, social, and cultural aspects of Arctic governance. 


1. Addressing the Accelerated Melting of Arctic Ice and its Consequences

The ongoing melting of Arctic ice has garnered attention from a myriad of stakeholders. As more of the Arctic region becomes navigable, the potential for emerging new trade routes is undeniable. Furthermore, resources currently covered by Arctic ice might become accessible. Countries might look at these resources with interest in energy requirements, economic security, or gains.

Further, the temperature change and the changing composition of the Arctic habitat might have severe consequences for the biodiversity in the Arctic region that the Arctic Council thrives to preserve and protect. This includes addressing the direct impact of climate change on indigenous and non-indigenous inhabitants of the Arctic regions. Striking a balance between social and economic interests is a formidable challenge in preserving the area.

By 2050, the Arctic Ocean is projected to provide navigable routes during the summer months consistently. This expected shift will undoubtedly lead to a surge in maritime traffic, potentially drawing interest from entities beyond the member states of the Arctic Council. Furthermore, marine tourism could become a burgeoning industry in the region.

Ensuring stability in the Arctic region remains a paramount concern, particularly considering one of the foundational principles articulated in the Ottawa Declaration: sustainable utilization of Arctic resources, preserving biodiversity, and protecting the Arctic environment. This underscores the need for a comprehensive and cooperative approach to safeguarding the fragile Arctic ecosystem while fostering responsible economic development.

2. Preserving the Rights, Welfare, and Active Engagement of Indigenous Communities in the Decision-making Processes Pertaining to their Arctic Lands and Resources

Ensuring the protection of indigenous rights, well-being, and involvement in decision-making related to their Arctic land and resource management is a complex imperative. With the Arctic undergoing rapid transformations and increased resource interest, indigenous communities are pivotal in shaping sustainable strategies for their ancestral territories.This objective mandates the acknowledgement and preservation of indigenous entitlements to their customary lands, resources, and cultural practices. It necessitates their substantive engagement in determinations impacting their societies, allowing their traditional wisdom and unique viewpoints to inform decision processes. Such integration guarantees that policies, rules, and undertakings concerning resource extraction, conservation, infrastructure advancement, and environmental preservation account for the multifaceted interests, aspirations, and reservations of indigenous groups. Central to this enterprise is the recognition of indigenous self-governance and autonomy, along with redressing historical grievances and addressing their socio-economic and cultural welfare. Achieving this necessitates the cooperation of governments, industry stakeholders, and indigenous representatives to formulate frameworks that foster inclusivity, equity, and sustainable practices. This strategy not only respects the privileges and identity of indigenous societies but also capitalizes on their profound relationship with the land and surroundings to cultivate effective stewardship practices and comprehensive strategies for Arctic progress.                                                   In synthesis, safeguarding indigenous rights, well-being, and their role in Arctic decision-making is a fundamental facet of judicious governance and sustainable development. By honouring indigenous perspectives, expertise, and aspirations, this approach bolsters the resilience of the Arctic ecosystem and the communities reliant on it.




Nathalie Ferko

Sofie Sharaf

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